1) High myopia (short sightedness)
2) Advanced diabetic retinopathy
4) Idiopathic (unknown cause)
5) Age related vitreous changes
If there is a retinal hole or tear but the retina has not yet detached, it can be treated by applying argon laser burns to the retina. This creates an inflammatory reaction and leads to firm adhesion of the retina to the sclera.
Similarly the repair can also be carried out by applying cryotherapy (localized freezing) to the outside of the sclera onto the retina, leading to a firm adhesion due to the inflammatory reaction.
If the retina is detached then surgery is often mandatory. Buckling or indentation of the sclera is carried out using special silicone implants or explants such as those made by Labtician. These implants are fabricated from solid silicone or silicone sponge and are formed into a variety of shapes and sizes. Depending on a variety of factors, the surgeon may choose one or several of these products for implantation.